Heavy Construction Equipment is basically the heavy-duty vehicles which are specially designed to execute the various tasks on the construction site. Some machines have multiple uses and some are task-specific.
The construction industry is a place where we use heavy tools, equipment and machinery to perform a work depending on the size of work and the economy of the project. This equipment are mainly used to make the work easier and faster. There are different types of heavy machines which have their own set of uses depending on the types of project your company is taking on.
Types of Heavy Machinery used in the Construction Industry
So here we will discuss 20 types of heavy machinery used in the Construction Industry.
Bulldozer is a heavy and a strong machine used in road, building construction, wrecking and construction mainly used for pushing rocks, earthwork, digging and levelling. It is equipped with a substantial metal plate known as Blade and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device known as Ripper.
A bulldozer can be found on sites like military bases, Large construction projects, heavy Industry factories, etc.
Uses:- Basically used in Roads, building construction, mining, wrecking etc.
Working:- When the bulldozer moves forward the blade is held below surface level, for transporting it is held at the surface level and for spreading it is held above the surface level.
Price:- It ranges from Rs. 55 lakh – 2 crore.
1. 220 HP Zoomlion bulldozer, Blade capacity 6.6 cubic metres, Engine power 220HP ( Rs 130 lakh)
2. Liugong Bulldozer, Engine power 120 HP-340 HP, woking condition- coal bulldozing type (Rs. 75 lakh) (https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/bulldozers-20316524133.html)
Reference link:- How does bulldozer work https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geF3gvF7k2Q
2. BACK-HOE LOADER
It is a heavy equipment machine which consists of a tractor fitted with a bucket/shovel on the front and backhoe on the back. It is mainly used in building small houses, fixing urban roads, digging up hard and compacted material. It is very common in road construction and small construction projects.
Uses:- Backhoe loaders used in superior digging, trenching, backfilling and material handling capability.
Working:- The operator has to park the tractor and turn the seat around and the basic job is digging a trench with the backhoe and then back-filling it with the loader.
Price:- It range is Between Rs 18 – 45 Lakh/unit
1. Backhoe Loaders Mahindra Earthmaster SX- RENTAL- 1.2 lakh/month, Capacity less than 5 cubic meters, Engine power almost 80 HP
2. Brand new CASE 851EX Backhoe Loader, Model: 851 EX – 25.5 Lakh, backhoe bucket- 0.26 cum, loader bucket capacity – 1cum, Gross power 96HP at 2200 rpm.
Reference Videos:- Backhoe loader working video
Excavator is another heavy construction machine also called a Digger. It consists of a bucket, arm, rotating cabin and moveable tracks. Excavators are used in many ways like digging of trenches, material handling, construction, mining, river dredging etc. It is commonly found in a place where large digging is required. The common excavators are fitted with diesel engines that generate hydraulic pressure for excavating operations. Excavator is available with both wheel type and tracked type.
Uses:- Digging of trenches, material handling, construction, mining, river dredging, etc
Working:- The operator uses pedals and levers to steer the equipment and to move backwards and forwards. Tracks are activated by the diesel-powered engine, and hydraulic motors control the arm of the excavator.
Price:- It ranges from Rs 25 lakh – 70 lakh /unit.
- JCB JS120 Crawler Excavator, 13 ton, 80 hp (RS 30 lakh)
- Hyundai R80 SMART Small Crawler Excavator, 8 ton, 60 hp (Rs 26 lakh)
- TATA HITACHI Ex-200, KOMATSU PC 200 Excavator RENTAL Contract (Rs 1.5 lakh/month)
Reference video– Excavator working Video
4. TOWER CRANES
Tower crane is a form of balance crane fixed on a construction site. It is a vertical mounting structure having a horizontal boom that can rotate up to 360 degrees. The purpose of the crane is to lift a heavyweight material like pre-stressed concrete blocks, steel trusses, frames etc. and move them horizontally from one place to another. The crane is provided with a rope, wire ropes or chains and sheaves.
Uses:- It is basically used for lifting heavy materials such as pre-stressed concrete, girders, etc and moving it from one place to another.
Working:- There are three main parts which are: the long horizontal jib (working arm), shorter counter-jib, and the operator’s cab. The long horizontal jib is that of a part of Grus that carries the load. The counter-jib carries a counterweight, usually of concrete blocks.
Price:- Its price range is between 40 lakh-
1. Lokpal Movable Tower Crane (Rs 45 Lakh/unit )
2.Standard make Tower Cranes, Hoisting Capacity: 10-15 ton, Max Height: 80-100 feet (Rs 19 lakh/unit)
3.. Alfa 2019 Tower Crane, Capacity: 5 Ton, RENTAL Duration: 3 months (Rs 90000/month)
Reference Video:- Working of tower crane https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hZQFLfUPMt0
Paver is a heavy construction machine most widely used for paving roads. It is also called asphalt paver which is used to lay asphalt in roads, bridges, parking lots, etc.
Uses:- It is used in the making of pavements, walkways, project entrance, playground etc
Working:- The paver consists of a feeding bucket in which the asphalt is added by a dump truck and pavers distribute onto the desired area at a constant speed so that there is equal distribution then they are completely flattened by a roller.
1. Road Wideners Paver – Soil & Asphalt (HMA), Capacity: 0.2 Mtr To 3.0 Mtr (Rs 51 lakh/unit)https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/road-wideners-paver-soil-asphalt-hma-22305991555.html
2. Himakshi Asphalt Paver Finisher, Capacity: 2.5 to 4.5 m (Rs 19.5 lakh/unit)
3. Slip Form Concrete Paver Machine On Rent. (Rs 17 lakh/month)
Reference Video:- paver machine working Video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yCzZilHtVM0)
6. DRUM ROLLER COMPACTORS
There are many types of compactors in construction, The roller compactor is also called a road roller which is used to compact the soil, gravel, asphalt and concrete.
Uses:- It is used to reduce the size of the material, crushing rocks, construction of road and the foundation work, etc
Working:- There are different types of roller such as Single drum roller, Pneumatic tyred roller, Sheep foot roller, combination roller, etc.
Single drum roller is used to compact the soil or asphalt, Pneumatic tyred roller is used to compact asphalt layers, Sheep foot roller is used for deep compaction.
Price:- Single drum roller price range from 125000-310000/piece
1. JCB 116 Single Drum Soil Compactor, 100 hp (Rs 9 lakhs/unit)
2. JCB VMT330 Double Drum Mini Tandem Roller, 45 hp (Rs 8.5 lakh)
Reference video:- Working of single drum roller https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XbuJ9wynpVw
7. PLATE COMPACTOR
It is another heavy machinery in the construction industry used for the compaction and the Plate Compactor is the most commonly used. A plate compactor is used to compress different types of soil and gravel.
Uses:- It is used in the building for removing air bubbles or gaps in the slab and similarly in the road construction, etc
Working:- It consists of a heavy steel plate which is mounted on the bottom of the machine which is driven or vibrated up and down to force air pockets out of the soil and a push-type mower which is used to move the machine.
1. Reversible Plate Compactor Machine (Rs 30,000/unit)
2. HZD 160 Electric Plate Compactor (Rs 40,000/unit)
Reference video:- Working of plate compactor
8. BOOM LIFT
Boom lift which is also known as Aerial work platform or bucket truck which is mainly used to provide workers to do work at a certain height.
There are two types of boom lift: Articulating which have multiple sections with joint or and telescopic also called straight boom because of their straight appearance like a telescope.
Uses:- Accessing confined work areas, Reaching over obstacles, Traveling over rough terrain, Working indoors, etc
Working:- It consists of a bucket in which one or two workers can stand-in. The crane is operated by a hydraulic lift system and the operator moves the lift to a certain height at which work is to be done.
1. Telescopic Electric Sky Lift, for Industrial Premises(Rs 4 lakh)
2. Truck Mounted Articulated Boom Lift ( Rs 1.5 lakh)
Reference video:- working of boom lift. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Be8_JdjCbiI)
9. DUMP TRUCKS
Dump truck is also called an off-highway truck which is specifically made for a rough environment. Dump truck consists of a large wheel with deep treads which help him to be feasible on any site such as mining, big construction site, etc.
Uses:- It is mainly used carrying material such as rock, soil, diet, etc from one place to another.
Working:- Dump or waste material is collected in the truck and transported to another place.
1. Hyva Dumper Truck (Rs 11 lakh/unit)
2. BharatBenz 1623C Tipper Truck, 16.2 ton GVW ( Rs 18 lakh)
3. Tata Prima LX 3128.K Tipper Truck, 31 ton GVW ( Rs 39.45 lakh)
Working of a dump truck (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBv-GvtuHBw)
Telehandler is a heavy construction machine with a multipurpose such as lift, move and place material. The machine also has large tyres which allow them to move at off-road sites.
Uses:- They are used in the agriculture fields, dockyards, airports, etc.
Working:- It consists of a forklift with a boom which can move horizontally and vertically from the vehicle.
1. Telescopic Loader (Rs 14.5 lakh)
2. JCB Telehandlers (Rs 37 lakh)
Reference video:- Working of telehandler (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjZlFoKnyIw)
11. WHEEL TRACTOR SCRAPER
It is piece one of the machinery in the construction industry which is used for earthmoving. It consists of a vertically movable rear hooper with a sharp edge for smoothing the surface.
Uses:- This large moving scraper is mainly used in construction, mining, agriculture and other earth-moving activities.
Working:- The front edge cuts the soil and fills the hopper. When the hopper is fully loaded then it can be raised, closed and moved to the dump area.
Reference video:- working of wheel tractor scraper (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pxOatFMbaEI)
12. SKID STEER LOADER
Skid steer loader is a small engine power heavy machine in the construction industry which consists of an operating cabin and a bucket which can be replaced by a variety of buckets and different types of tools. It is basically a four-wheel vehicle which is used in place of excavation.
Uses:- It is basically used in a small environment. It is also used for transporting raw material within a site.
Working:- When the material is placed in the bucket and stored in it then it will help to place it from one place to another.
1. Liugong 365A Skid Steer Loaders, Operating Weight: 2950 Kg (Rs 30 lakh/unit)
A harvester is a heavy machine designed to harvest grain crops such as wheat, maze or vegetables. It combines three harvesting operations into a single process i.e reaping, threshing and winnowing.
Used:- It is mainly used in agriculture projects to harvest the crops and minimizing manual work for a farmer.
Working:-Combined harvester has a wide header at the front which gathers the crop then the reel within the header moves the crop towards the cutter bar where it is sliced. The grain is then moved up the conveyor to the threshing drums where they are separated from the stalks. A collecting tank gathers all the grains as they fall out through the sieves. The straw walkers then carry the chaff to the backside of the combined harvester.
It is one of the heavy machines in the construction industry also called Ditcher or digging machine which is used to dig trenches for laying pipes, electric cables, Installing drainage etc. This tool consists of a heavy metal chain made with incredibly strong steel which it uses to cut into the ground and rip through things like roots, smaller rocks and dirt.
Uses:- Cutting Pavement, Creating Drainage, Shoveling, Digging for Electrical Wires, Snipping Roots
Working:- Heavy Machine fitted with rim buckets or ladder on which an endless chain of buckets or scrapers revolves. The machine is self-propelled on rubber tires or crawlers. Then the machine moves forward, it rotates the wheel in order that the buckets dig at their forward edge. They dump onto a conveyor belt that piles the cuttings on either side.
1. Tractor Fitted Trench Digger Machine(Rs 4.22 lakh)
2. Water Cooled JBC Trench Digger Machine: Warranty-6 Months( Rs. 4.5 lakh/unit)
Reference video:- working of trencher (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f3q1oNM3PO8)
15. ARTICULATED HAULER
It is also known as an articulated dump truck (ADT). The vehicle consists of two basic unit tractors and a haulier and vehicle have all-wheel drive. All wheels follow the same path making it an off-road vehicle, It can carry a massive load around tight turns. It is one of the heavy machinery in the construction industry.
Uses:- It is used in Large surfaces such as mines and queries where there is a tough surface to drive. It is best used at rugged and cramped sites such as large construction sites.
Working:- This dump truck has a control cabin where the driver sits and a Rear section that contains the dump body called a haulier. They are used to dump material from one place to another.
Reference Video:- working of the articulated haulier
16. MOTOR GRADER
A motor grader is a heavy construction machine also commonly known as grader or road grader. It consists of a long blade which is used to create a flat surface during grading. It consists of three axles, engine and cabin located above the rear axle at the one end of the vehicle and third axle at the front end. The blade is situated in between.
Uses:- It is mainly used for construction and maintenance of roads, construction of paved roads, to prepare the base course to create a wide flat surface,r removal of snow, debris and earth-moving purposes, making smoother surfaces, fine grade, levelling soil and shifting small amounts of dirt.
1. Mahindra RoadMaster G75 Motor Grader, 79.95 hp, 7740 kg(Rs 35 lakh/unit)
2. CASE 865B VHP Motor Grader, 178-205 hp, 15330 kg(Rs 1.28 crore)
3. Mahindra RoadMaster G90 Motor Grader, 91 hp, 8350 kg(Rs 44 lakh)
Reference video:- working of motor grade (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E94vwC6iIpc)
It is one of the heavy machines in the construction that is mainly used in a logging operation for pulling cut trees in the forest. They are one of the few logging heavy machines that are capable of carrying logs above a few inches of the ground and dragging trees to a loading site.
Uses:-It is mainly used in the forest for Pulling tree stumps, pushing over small trees, and preliminary grading of a logging path.
Working:- A Skidder is a rubber-tired four-wheel-drive machine consisting of a power plant, operator cabin, forward dozer blade and a grappling device at the back of the machine. The operator opens and lowers the grapple onto the trunks of the trees and then closes the grapple and raises the tree trunks slightly off the ground. The machine then moves the trees through the woods to the landing and drops them off.
Reference videos:- Working of skidder (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUbZvsokR9s)
18. KNUCKLE BOOM LOADER
Knuckle boom loader is a swing type heavy machine that is used to handle the log. This heavy machine consists of a fork with a grapple for picking the logs. The main advantage of loaders is that it picks a large number of logs and shorter the loading time.
Uses:- It is mainly used in a forest or place where the only function is moving and loading material, woodyards.
Working:- Knuckleboom loaders are designed with fast hydraulics for quick swing and boom movement. The grapples are pin mounted with a rotator which aids in positioning the logs for loading.
1. Hydraulic Knuckle Boom Crane (Rs 55 lakh)
2. Boom Cranes( Rs18.5 lakh)
Reference video:- working of knuckle boom loader
19. CARRY DECK CRANE
It is a small four-wheel heavy machine with an ability to rotate 360 degrees. It consists of an operating room in the centre, the rear section of the crane has an engine, Carry deck cranes typically come with fully hydraulic controls for extremely smooth and precise operations. With weight capacities upwards of 15 tons, and pick up and carry weight capacities of over 9 tons on certain models.
Uses:- Transporting material from one place to another on-site, manufacturing plants, etc
Working:- It contains a hook or jack that is tied with a chain or a rope which is mainly used to tie the material and transport it from one place to another.
1. ACE Rhino 90 C 11 ton Hydraulic Mobile Crane (Rs 11.1 lakh)
2. ACE ACX 750 75 ton Hydraulic Crawler Crane (Rs. 171 lakh)
Reference video:- Working of carrying deck crane (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AeJ3ECofhv0)
20. TRANSIT MIXER
It is a heavy machine used in construction for transporting concrete from a batching plant to the site. It contains an operator cabin and a transit drum which carry mortar or concrete. It makes the work feasible and efficient and less time is required to do the work.
Uses:- It is used in places like where nig project or construction is going on. For example airports, multistory buildings, dams, highways, bridges, factories etc.
Working:- The interior of the transit drum is fitted with a spiral blade. The spiral blade is able to move in two directions i.e when the clockwise movement of the drum is charged with concrete and in counterclockwise direction concrete discharges out from the transit drum.
1. Powerol Reverse Drum Mixer Transit Mixers(Rs 9 lakh)
2. Diesel Engine Powerol Concrete Transit Mixer 7 Cum(Rs 8.5 lakh)
Reference video:- working of transit mixer